The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published this Monday (4) a new edition of its report. According to more than 270 authors from 65 countries, it is possible to reduce gas emissions in all sectors of the economy. The document also presents data on inequality linked to the problem: 10% of homes account for up to 45% of the carbon released on the planet.
“Globally, 10% of the planet’s most emitting households contribute 34% to 45% of domestic greenhouse gas emissions”, points out the IPCC.
“Half of those who emit the least on the planet spend less than US$ 3 per capita per day. The 10% that emit the most spend more than US$ 23 per capita per day”, he adds.
This is the third and final edition of the IPCC’s 6th Assessment Report. The first of them was published in August 2021 and pointed out that part of man’s direct actions towards the planet have irreversible consequences. The second part, from March 2022, focused on the impacts of the climate crisis, possible adaptation paths and global vulnerabilities.
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While the panel draws attention to the fact that humanity has already consumed 80% of the carbon it could to have a chance to stop the temperature risehe presents solutions and argues that all sectors of the economy are capable of reducing the emissions that cause global warming by 2030.
“Historical cumulative net CO2 emissions between 1850 and 2019 equate to 80% of the total available carbon to have a 50% chance of limiting global warming to 1.5°C,” the IPCC said.
At least 18 countries in the world are already implementing effective measures for decarbonization in the last 10 years. The researchers say that “limiting global warming will require major transitions in the energy sector”, with a reduction in fossil fuels, a higher level of energy efficiency and the implementation of alternatives for generating clean energy.
“Having the right policy, infrastructure and technology to enable changes in our lifestyle and behavior can result in up to 70% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050,” said Priyadarshi Shukla, Chair of the Working Group at third edition of the report.
At the last UN climate conference, COP26, the final document signed by more than 200 member countries contemplated for the first time the gradual reduction of subsidies to fossil fuels and the use of coal. On the other hand, countries already affected by climate change, such as the Marshall Islands, Tuvalu and South Africa, still defend the financing of rich countries for the problems caused – a measure that has not left the drawing board.
In addition, Monday’s report makes a case for new “opportunities” for cities and urban areas. According to the document, large and medium-sized centers can have a lower energy consumption with the creation of more compact and walkable citiesuse of electricity for transport and new sources of energy generation.
“Urban areas can create opportunities to increase resource use efficiency and significantly reduce emissions. This can occur through the systemic transition of infrastructure and urbanization that leads to low-emissions development towards net-zero emissions.” , said Mercedes Bustamante, scientist and professor at the University of Brasília, one of the authors of the new edition of the IPCC.
“Ambitious mitigation efforts, for both established cities and fast-growing and emerging cities, will encompass reduction or change in energy and materials consumption, electrification, and increased absorption and storage of carbon in the urban environment,” he said.
The researcher also states that it is important to consider “emissions outside the administrative boundaries of cities”, through supply chains. According to her, such measures will have beneficial cascading effects in other sectors of the economy.
At COP26, the Brazilian government made a commitment to eliminate illegal deforestation by 2028, progressively reducing the practice: 15% per year until 2024; 40% per year in 2025 and 2026; 50% in 2027; until finally, in 2028, zero illegal deforestation.
Despite this commitment, according to data from the Instituto do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazônia (Imazon), deforestation in the Amazon in 2021 was the worst in ten years.
According to the most recent figures, compiled by the Space Research Institute (Inpe), deforestation alerts in the Legal Amazon in January and February were the highest ever recorded for these two months since the institute began monitoring it in 2016.
In an interview with g1 during a visit to São Paulo, the president of COP 26, Alok Sharma, demanded that the commitments assumed by the country be fulfilled.
“If you want to have private investment, if you want to guarantee progress, those commitments that were made definitely need to be fulfilled,” he said.
President of COP26, Alok Sharma, speaks at an event in São Paulo this Monday (28). — Photo: British Embassy/Disclosure